If you live in Quebec for 3 months, you are eligible to apply Quebec loan and bursary program. Since Quebec has its own loan & Bursary program.
If you live in other provinces, you should live there consecutive 12 months before you can apply the loan from that province. But you are eligible to apply in Canada student loan program no matter for how long you live in that province.
After you enroll in the program, you can meet a conseller of financial aid office in your university. In gerenal, you can get the loan in 3-8 weeks after you fill up the form and submit it via the financial aid office in your university.