本文发表在 rolia.net/zh 相约加拿大网上社区枫下论坛
An operating system introduced by Microsoft Corporation in 1983. Windows is a multitasking graphical user interface environment that runs on both MS-DOS based computers and as a self-contained operating system.
Windows provides a standard interface based on drop-down menus, windowed regions on the screen, and a pointing device such as a mouse.
It’s a single-tasking, single-user operating system with a command-line interface. It’s used only on the personal computer.
3. infinite loop
A loop whose execution can be terminated only by intervention from outside the computer program in which the loop is included.
Any procedure(A), while being executed, either calls itself or calls another procedure(B) which in turn calls procedure(A).
A structured programming language developed by Bell Laboratories.
6. word processing
The act of entering and editing text with a word processor. A word processor is the electronic equivalent of paper, pen, typewriter, eraser, and most likely dictionary.
All word processors offer at least limited facilities for document formatting such as font changes, page layout, paragraph indention.
Central Processing Unit / Computer Processing Unit
Read Only Memory
Random Access Memory
Structure Query Language
Data Definition Language
Hypertext Markup Language. It is used for documents on the World Wide Web.
An object-oriented programming language. Similar to C++, Java is smaller, more portable, and easier to use. It is a useful language for programming Web applications, since users access the Web from many types of computers.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol. The client/server protocol used to access information on the World Wide Web.
File Transfer Protocol.
The protocol used for copying files to and from remote computer systems on a network using TCP/IP, such as Internet.
Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol
A protocol developed by the American Department of Defense for communications between computers. It has become the fact standard for data transmission over network, including the Internet.
To detect, locate, and correct logical or syntactical errors in a program or malfunctions in hardware.
18. software package
A program sold to the public, ready to run and containing all necessary components and documentation.
19. operating system
The software that controls the allocation and usage of hardware resources such as memory, CPU time, disk space. The operating system is the foundation on which applications are built.
Any machine that accepts structured input, processes it according to prescribed rules, and produces the result as output.
Computers can be classified as supercomputers, mainframes, superminicomputers, minicomputers, workstations, or microcomputers.
21. user interface
The portion of a program with which a user interacts. Types include command-line interface, menu-driven interfaces, and graphical user interface.
22. Web Site
A group of related HTML documents and associated files, scripts, and database that is served up by an HTTP server on the World Wide Web. Most Web sites have a home page as their starting point, which frequently functions as a table of contents for the site. Many large organizations, such as corporations, will have one or more HTTP servers dedicated to a single Web site.
23. home page
A document intended to serve as a starting point in the World Wide Web. An entry page for a set of Web pages and other files in a Web site.
World Wide Web.
The total set of interlinked hypertext documents residing on HTTP servers all around the world. A user can access another file, perhaps halfway around the world, with a key press or a mouse click. A user visiting a Web page also may be able to download files from an FTP site and send messages to other users via email by using links on the Web page.
A security system intended to protect an organization’s network against external threats, such as hackers, coming from another network, such as the Internet. A firewall prevents computers in the organization’s network from communicating directly with computers external to the network.
A part of a program that usually performs a particular function or related functions.
The Worldwide collection of networks and gateways that use the TCP/IP suite of protocols to communicate with one another.
A group of computers and associated devices that are connected by communications facilities. A network can be as small as a local area network consisting of a few computers, printers, and other devices. Or it can consist of many small and large computers distributed over a vast geographic area.
29. client/server architecture
An arrangement used on local networks. It splits the processing of an application between a “front-end” client and a “back-end” server. The client component is a complete, stand-alone personal computer (not a terminal) and it offers the user its full range of power and features for running applications. The server component can be a personal computer, minicomputer, or mainframe that provides data management, information sharing between clients, and sophisticated network administration and security features. The client portion of the application is typically optimized for user interaction. The server portion provides the centralized, multi-user functionality.
30. OOP (object-oriented programming)
A programming paradigm in which a program is viewed as a collection of discrete objects that are self-contained collections of data structures and routines that interact with other objects.
A finite sequence of steps for solving a logical or mathematical problem.
A set of rules or standards designed to enable computers to connect with one another and to exchange information with as little error as possible.
The exchange of text messages and computer files over a communications network, such as a local area network or the Internet, usually between computers or terminals.
It is the vital step between receiving data and producing results. It’s the manipulation of data within a computer system.
In email and Internet newsgroups, a series of messages and replies related to a specific topic.
36. Unix system
A multi-user, multitasking operating system used on minicomputers. It is more portable than other operating systems, because it is written in the C language.
37. structured programming
It makes programs more clean flow, more clear design. Let programs have a degree of modularity and hierarchical structure.
Asynchronous Transfer Mode.
A network technology capable of transmitting data, voice, video, and frame relay traffic in real time. It is currently used in local area networks involving workstation and personal computers.
Packet Internet Groper.
A protocol for testing whether a particular computer is connected to the Internet by sending a packet to its IP address and waiting for a response.
Data Definition Language.
It’s a language that defines all attributes and properties of a database, especially record layouts, field definitions, key fields, file locations, and storage strategy.
1. -system database is used to store the system data, such as the structure of tables.
-application database is used to store the data of user’s application, such as names, numbers, addresses and so on.
2. –programmer only coding and debug programs according the specification.
-computer analyst’s duty is more complicated. They design the project and make the specification.
-software engineer coding and debug programs too, but they make the specification sometimes.
One byte is 8 bits.
4. -C compile to the machine code, and than execute.
-Basic is a kind of executive language. The program compiles and run at the same time.
5. -C Process-Oriented language
-C++ Object-oriented language
6. -system programming is related to the system equipment.
-application programming is just related to user’s needs.
7. -logical means more general, physical.
-grammatical means more specific and detail.
The difference between them is that “logical” is related to system or algorithm design and “grammatical” is related to coding.
8. -assembly language can direct programmer interaction with system hardware, so it increases execution speed.
-other language must be used on some operate systems which are based on hardware.
9.–-batch processing The practice of acquiring programs and data sets from users, running them one or a few at a time, and then providing the results to the users.
-interactive processing involves the more or less continuous participation of the user. Such a command/response mode is characteristic of microcomputers.
1. Which is difficult to find out, logical error or grammatical error?
Logical error of course. When you compile the program, the compiler will tell you the grammatical errors: how many errors and where they are. But it will not tell you logical errors. From syntax, the program is perfect, but it can’t give out the right result. That is logical error. It’s difficult to find out where logical error is and how it occurs.
2. Tell me three types of database.
Relational database , Network database, Hierarchical database.
Relational database stores information in tables and conducts searches by utilizing data in specified columns of one table to find additional data in another table. In a relational database, the rows of a table represent records (collections of data about separate items) and the columns represent fields.
3. Which type of database is related to table?
4. How to implement a program?
5. How to design a database?
Analyze the entry-relation of objects, then design the table for every entry and the relation table for every relation, and finally connect these tables.
6. Why it is difficult to modify other programmer’s program? How to make it easy?
Because you have to understand the idea of other programmers, it takes a long time. Meanwhile, the coding styles are various. To make it easier, first of all, every programmer should code in a readable style using necessary spaces, comments and so on. Besides that, a detailed document should be provided with the codes and be updated whenever the codes are changed. Secondly, we should improve our coding skills. After coding, we should test all the codes and avoid all the errors.
7. Please illustrate the formal steps of developing a user needed software system.
8. How to compile a program? How to make the compiling faster?
9. How to write a homepage?
First, you must edit the documents what the homepage needs. Then, use FTP tools put the documents on to the web server.
10. How to debug the program?
In the developing tools, insert a breakpoint in the resource code, and then run the program. When it runs to the breakpoint, it steps, then I can use watch window to see the values of variables. If the values are correct, I insert the breakpoint forwardly.
11. How to test the program? (in a network)
Run the program on a server, and make some request input in the client, and wait to see if the right response will arrive.
更多精彩文章及讨论，请光临枫下论坛. 网址: rolia.net/zh