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Part 4 Structural Design
Section 4.1. Structural Loads and Procedures
1) The scope of this Part shall be as described in Section 2.1.
1) Words that appear in italics in this Part are defined in Part 1.
2) For design carried out within this Part, the designer shall be a professional engineer or architect skilled in the work concerned. (See Appendix A. )
22.214.171.124. Design Requirements
1) Buildings and their structural members including formwork and falsework shall be designed to have sufficient structural capacity and structural integrity to resist safety and effectively all loads and effects of loads and influences that may reasonably be expected, having regard to the expected service life of buildings, and shall in any case satisfy the requirements of this Section. (See Appendix A.)
2) All permanent and temporary structural members, including formwork and falsework of a buildings shall be protected against loads exceeding the specified loads during the construction period except when, as verified by analysis or test, temporary overloading of a structural member would result in no impairment of that member or any other member.
3) Falsework, scaffolding, and formwork shall be designed in conformance with:
a) CSA S269.1 “Falsework for Construction Purposes,”
b) CAN/CSA-S269.2-M, “Access Scaffolding for Construction Purposes,” or
c) CAN/CSA-S269.3-M, “Concrete Formwork.”
4) Precautions shall be taken during all phases of construction to ensure that the building is not damaged or distorted due to loads applied during construction.
126.96.36.199. Design Basis
1) Buildings and their structural members shall be designed in conformance with Part 4 and 5. (See Subsection 2.5.2 for other methods of design.)
1) In proportioning structural members to limit deflection, consideration shall be given to
a) the intend use of the building or member,
b) limiting damage to non-structural members and materials whose physical properties are known at the time of the design,
c) limiting damage to the structure itself, and
d) creep, shrinkage and temperature. (See Appendix A.)
2) Sway effects produced by vertical loads acting on the structure in its displaced configuration shall be taken into account in the design of buildings and their structural members.
3) The lateral deflection of buildings due to design wind and gravity loads shall be checked to ensure that nonstructural elements whose nature is known at the time the structural design is carried out will not be damaged.
4) Except as provided in Sentence (5), the total drift per storey under specified wind and gravity loads shall not exceed 1/500 of the storey height unless other drift limits are specified in the design standards referenced in Section 4.3. (See Appendix A.)
5) The deflection limits required in Sentence (4) do not apply to industrial buildings or sheds if it is known by experience that greater movement will have no significant adverse effect on the strength and function of the building.
1) Floor systems susceptible to vibrations shall be designed so that there will be no significant adverse effects on the intended occupancy of the building from vibrations. (See Appendix A.)
2) Unusually flexible buildings and buildings whose ratio of height to minimum effective width exceeds 4 to 1 shall be designed so that there will be no significant adverse effects on the intended occupancy of the building from vibrations under dynamic wind load. (See Appendix A.)
1) Provision shall be made to ensure adequate stability of a structure as a whole, and adequate lateral, torsional and local stability of all structural parts.
188.8.131.52. Structural Drawings and Related Documents
1) Structural drawings and related documents shall conform to the appropriate requirements of Part 2. (See Subsection 2.3.4.)
4.1.2. Specified Loads and Effects
184.108.40.206. Loads, Forces and Effects
1) Except as provided for in Article 220.127.116.11., the following specified loads, forces and effects shall be considered in the design of a building and its structural members and connections:
D — dead loads as provided for in Subsection 4.1.5.,
E — live load due to earthquake as specified in Subsection 4.1.9.,
L — live load due to static or inertia forces arising from intended use and occupancy (includes loads due to cranes); snow, ice and rain; earth and hydrostatic pressure,
T — effects due to contraction or expansion caused by temperature changes, shrinkage, moisture changes, creep in component materials, movement due to differential settlement or combination thereof, (see Appendix A )
W — live load due to wind as specified in Subsection 4.1.8.
2) Minimum specified values of these loads, as set forth in Subsections 4.1.5. to 4.1.10., shall be increased to account for dynamic effects where applicable.
18.104.22.168. Loads Not Listed
1) Where a building or structural member can be expected to be subjected to loads, forces or other effects not listed in Article 22.214.171.124., such effects shall be taken into account in the design based on the most appropriate information available.
2) If it can be shown by engineering principles, or if it is known from experience, that neglect of some or all of the effects due to T does not affect the structural safety and serviceability, they need not be considered in the calculations.
126.96.36.199. Structural Design
1) Structural design shall be carried out in accordance with Subsection 4.1.4., Working Stress Design.
4.1.3. Limit States Design (see Appendix A.)
1) In this Subsection, the term
a) limit states means those conditions of a building structure in which the building ceases to fulfil the function for which it was designed. (Those states concerning safety are called ultimate limit states and include exceeding the load carrying capacity, overturning, sliding, fracture and fatigue, while those states which restrict the intended use and occupancy of the building are called serviceability limit states, and include deflection, vibration, permanent deformation and cracking.)
b) specified loads (D, E, L, T and W) mean those loads defined in Article 188.8.131.52. and given in this Section.
c) Load factor, α, means a factor in Sentence 184.108.40.206.(4) applied to a specified load which, for the limit states under consideration, takes into account the variability of the loads and load patterns and analysis of their effects,
d) Factored load means the product of a specified load and its load factor,
e) Load combination factor, ψ, means a factor in Sentences 220.127.116.11.(5) and (6) applied to the factored loads other than dead load to take into account the reduced probability of a number of loads from different sources acting simultaneously,
f) Importance factor, γ, means a factor in Sentence 18.104.22.168.(7) applied to the factored loads other than dead load to take into account the consequences of collapse as related to the use and occupancy of the building,
g) Resistance, R, of a member, connection, structure or foundation, is based on the dimensions and on the specified properties of the structural materials,
h) Resistance factor, φ, means a factor applied to a specified material property or to the resistance of a member, connection, structure or foundation, which for the limit state under consideration takes into account the variability of dimensions and material properties, workmanship, type of failure and uncertainty in the prediction of resistance, and
i) Factored resistance means the product of resistance and the applicable resistance factor.
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