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Francis of Assisi
Also known as
Francis Bernardone; il Poverello
Son of Pietro Bernadone, a rich cloth merchant. Though he had a good education and became part of his father's business, he also had a somewhat misspent youth. Street brawler and some-time soldier. Captured during a conflict between Assisi and Perugia, he spent over a year as a prisoner of war. During this time he had a conversion experience, including a reported message from Christ calling him to leave this worldly life. Upon release, Francis began taking his religion seriously.
He took the Gospels as the rule of his life, Jesus Christ as his literal example. He dressed in rough clothes, begged for his sustenance, and preached purity and peace. His family disapproved, and his father disinherited him; Francis formally renounced his wealth and inheritance. He visited hospitals, served the sick, preached in the streets, and took all men and women as siblings. He began to attract followers in 1209, and with papal blessing, founded the Franciscans based on a simple statment by Jesus: "Leave all and follow me." In 1212 Clare of Assisi became his spiritual student, which led to the founding of the Poor Clares. Visited and preached to the Saracens. Composed songs and hymns to God and nature. Lived with animals, worked with his hands, cared for lepers, cleaned churches, and sent food to thieves. In 1221 he resigned direction of the Franciscans.
While in meditation on Mount Alvernia in the Apennines in September 1224, Francis received the stigmata, which periodically bled during the remaining two years of his life. This miracle has a separate memorial on 17 September.
In the Middle Ages people who believed to be possessed by Beelzebub especially called upon the intercession of Saint Francis, the theory being that he was the demon's opposite number in heaven.
1181 at Assisi, Umbria, Italy as Francis Bernardone
4 October 1226 at Portiuncula, Italy of natural causes; relics in Assisi, Italy
16 July 1228 by Pope Gregory IX
against dying alone; against fire; animal welfare societies; animals; Assisi Italy; birds; Catholic Action; Colorado; archdiocese of Denver Colorado; dying alone; ecologists; ecology; environment; environmentalism; environmentalists; families; fire; Franciscan Order; Freising, Germany; Italy; diocese of Kottapuram, India; lacemakers; laceworkers; diocese of Lancaster, England; Massa, Italy; merchants; diocese of Metuchen, New Jersey; Nambe Indian Pueblo; needle workers; peace; Quibdo, Choco, Colombia; diocese of Salina, Kansas; archdiocese of San Francisco California; Sante Fe New Mexico; archdiocese of Sante Fe New Mexico; Sorbo, Italy; tapestry workers; zoos
birds; deer; fish; lamb; skull; stigmata; wolf
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